On the skin, brown spots and black spots are regions of extra pigmentation that stand out as darker than the surrounding skin. Numerous factors, such as sun exposure, aging, hormonal changes, heredity, and specific medical disorders, can cause these spots to develop.
Brown spots, often referred to as age spots or liver spots, are flat, brown patches that typically develop on skin that is frequently exposed to sunlight, such as the face, hands, and arms. They are more prevalent in elderly persons and are brought on by an excess of melanin, the pigment responsible for skin color.
Contrarily, dark patches can refer to a number of hyperpigmentation conditions, such as freckles, melasma, and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). PIH happens when the skin overproduces pigment in response to damage or inflammation, such as that caused by acne, eczema, or external trauma. A kind of hyperpigmentation known as melasma is frequently brought on by hormonal changes, such as those that occur during pregnancy or while taking birth control pills.
The underlying cause and severity of the issue will determine the best course of action for treating brown and black spots. In addition to cosmetic procedures like chemical peels, microdermabrasion, and laser therapy, treatments can also comprise topical lotions and serums containing vitamins C, retinoids, and hydroquinone. A board-certified dermatologist should be consulted to decide the best course of action in each unique case. Additionally, good sun safety practices like using sunscreen and donning protective clothing will help curb the development of new dark spots.